Pro-activity can be applied at any level within an organization. However, it is primarily the role of management programs achieved by means of feed-forward instead of feedback processes. A feed-forward process anticipates, plans, and then directs underlying systems to advance overall outcomes.
Establishing management programs are essential when it comes to meeting performance and outcome-based obligations. While feedback processes are necessary to verify conformance to rules and standards, feed-forward process are needed to advance goals and objectives specifically those connected with vision zero targets: zero harm, zero incidents, zero violations, zero defects, and so on.
It is not expected that a company's systems are capable of achieving vision zero targets at the start. However, what is expected is that companies continually improve their capabilities over time to get closer to the ultimate goal of zero. Management programs drive the improvement of these capabilities while management systems make sure that performance is consistently achieved.
Further reading on the topic of management programs and systems: